Knowledge Exchange on PGS Network and Markets with Partners in Myanmar

November 2022, By Zoom Application

This activity aimed to strengthen Organic/Agroecology Network in Myanmar by exchange and sharing experiences, including draw out the lessons learned from the network.

The target groups were:

  • Producer group, 1 group, 11 persons, elephant farm
  • Trader group, 3 groups, 12 persons, Gaia Green, consumer green shop in Mandalay, Southern Shan Shop
  • PGS group, 1 group, 3 persons, Gaia PGS

Session #1, 5 November 2022

Getting to know Green Net and Organic Agriculture Principle

Green Net was established in 1993 as a Social Enterprise (SE) working on organic farming and fair trade. Later, the Green Net become a consist of the legal entities, Green Net Cooperative (GNC) in 1994 and Earth Net Foundation (ENF) in 2000.

The functions and scope of works of the Green Net Cooperative are:

  • 37 employees (17 admin and technical, 20 workers)
  • 766 producer families
  • All certified organic, all The World Fair Trade Organization (WFTO) (rice, coconut, cashew, are Fairtrade Labelling Organizations (FLO) certified)
  • Total 46 products, 8 products are exported
  • Sale USD 1.99 million
  • 60% export and 40% domestic

The functions and scope of works of the Earth Net Foundation are:

  • Working with 20 producer group and suppliers for Green Net
  • Supporting national organic and the fairtrade movement (e.g., Agricultural Land Reform, Thai Fairtrade Network, Thai PGS Organic Plus)
  • Consultancy related to organic and fairtrade development in Southeast Asia

Principle of Ecology

  • Based on local Ecological system and natural cycle: rule of nature
  • Farmers must learn and understand local ecological systems and cycles and adjust farming practices accordingly
  • Growing crop or animal husbandry shall respect ecological cycles and harmony. Organic Agriculture must appropriate to local conditions.
  • Organic Agriculture farm must try to build a balanced agro-ecosystem through farm design, local ecosystem rehabilitation and conservation, biodiversity and farm diversification.

Principle of Fair

  • Fairness means quality, respect, justice between human and with other living organisms and environment
  • Fair with everyone in the production and marketing chains from workers, farmers, processors, traders to consumers.
  • Fair to animals by arranging the farms according to the needs of the animals.
  • Fair to the natural resources used in the production, taking conservation measures for future generations.

Principle of Care

  • Organic farm management must be done with care, to protect the health and well being of present and future generation and ecosystem.
  • Measures to improve efficiency and productivities must be dome with precautionary for their impacts on health and environment.

Discussion on the principles and practices

  • Understanding on Organic Agriculture: It’s a technique of farming to reduce chemical and promote the health, to improve the soil quality and does not destroy the nature/environment in the long run. And Organic Agriculture is not only technique, it’s including farm management.
  • IFOAM is a private sectors federation at the international level. The members are practitioner, farmers, traders, etc.
  • The principle of the health, concern for the health of the plant and the health of human being, in organic farming, we feed the soil then the soil will feed the plant. For example, IMO or EM is feeding for the plants not for the soil.
  • The principle of ecology, for example, farmer will set aside of the land for diversity conservation (not crop rotation), and using local and organic seeds.
  • The principle of fair, for example, the space for organic animal husbandry.
  • The principle of care, it will be for care for present and future. For example, no plastic and garbage are burned, and no GMOs (after release GMOs the situation cannot be reversed back/ non-reversible, because it can reproduce itself).
  • The farmers cannot do it by themselves, they have to be supported by business. Because the farmer will need to sell the produce, therefore business must help to support and guide the farmer to achieve these 4 principles in organic agriculture. And we need to educate the consumer to understand these principles, if they commit to these principles, they will commit to purchase the products, not only the organic product has less chemical.
  • There are a lot of misunderstandings, both on the farmer and consumer side. Lots of consumers are getting into organic produces and wishing for “no residue or chemical free”. But this is not possible, because right now the product on earth is being contaminated. Quite often people in the past or neighbour were using chemical and that chemical continue to contaminate the produce. Instead of sanction people who are using chemical, we are now sanction the organic farmers by not buying their produces because there are residues.

Questions and Answers

  • Is there any traditional way or local knowledge for feeding the soil? Then people can learn and practice it. Can we feed the soil by using green manure?
    • Feeding the soil, basically is feeding with organic material that have rich or proper carbon and nitrogen. Understanding the nutrient requirement of the crop, it’s a complex system to understand to manage the different of animal manure and crop residues, to feed the soil and have nutrient available to the crop appropriately. There is also a concept of nutrient budget. In summary, the organic material would work as long as it’s carbon rich.
    • The green manure is normally good to feed the soil, but it depends on how you do it, it’s fresh or dry, the kind of the legume.
    • For the market actor, we should understand organic farming is not just “no chemical” or “chemical free”, but taking care of the environment and ecology, and using quite specific technique in practice.

The potential plan for further steps

  • Soil management workshop (1 day workshop)

Session #2, 12 November 2022

Participatory Guarantee System (PGS)

PGS Name: Gaia PGS

Structure: Organizer, technical support team, local groups, Farmers, producers, consumers



  1. Growing crops without using any synthetic agro-chemical inputs such as fertilizer, herbicide, pesticide, fungicide, foliar spray.
  2. Well decomposed locally available organic wastes and animal manures are used.
  3. Pest and disease problems are solved by the organic technique shared by GAIA PGS network which are fit to environmental sustainability. (GAIA PGS technical supporting team will assist and share knowledge and skill)
  4. GMO seeds are prohibited. Local seeds conservation and growing are encouraged but open pollinated hybrid seeds are allowed in a case of local seed scarcity as exception.
  5. Sewage (of human) is not using in vegetable farming. (Strongly prohibited because of transmission of pathogens)
  6. Conversion period to organic system is agreed after 12 months of farming without using synthetic agrochemical inputs. 
  7. Farm wastes and crop residues are not burnt out.
  8. Organic products and conventional products are not storing together. (Separate the products)
  9. Producers have to assure of following the communal agreements of the network.
  10. Assessments are to be done among producers within a group and among groups.
  11. GAIA PGS producers/ farmers have to attend localized PGS meetings.

Processed Foods and animal husbandry

  1. Preserved and processed foods are not using chemical dyes and additives.
  2. Preserved and processed foods production areas are allowed to inspect and check by representatives of this PGS network
  3. Fish, meat and egg production are not using antibiotics, hormones and chemical inputs. Natural feeds and medicines are used in animal rearing.
  4. Meat, fish and egg of domestic farms using natural feeds are allowed to sale as organic products.
  5. Fish and meat of disease infected farms are not allowed to sell in organic network.
  6. Illegal hunting and fishing by using pesticide and electric shock are prohibited.

Packing and storage

  1. Water used for cleaning agricultural products before packing is clean enough as household use.
  2. Producer name, production area, and trade mark are used for traceability.
  3. Crops and processed foods produced by GAIA PGS system are separated with conventional products; it is responsibility of both producers and sellers.
  4. Technical supports are available in GAIA PGS network and environmental conservation is essential in every step of production.

How inspectors are trained

  1. Technical supporting team meetings, workshops
  2. Literature reviews and localize the standards
  3. All stakeholders are involved in technical supporting team
  4. Supporting than inspection is encouraged
  5. Mutual trust

Approval system

  1. Application of PGS organic system
  2. Discussion and assessment together with local group
  3. Soil test, environmental condition check
  4. PGS certificate (Because of pandemic and political condition)
  5. PGS stickers on products
  6. Consumer education supports such as leaflets, booklets on agricultural relative issues, consumer dialogues, farm visits
  7. Market actors’ meetings and learning activities
  8. Multi stakeholders’ meeting and dialogues

Cost recovery

  1. NGO support, main sector of cost contribution for the operation and functioning of the whole process for the moment, 85% of cost is covered from NGO support.
  2. Cost sharing, for communication, mobilizing activity, and follow up activities are done by the local team with shared cost.
  3. Local social enterprise, social enterprise is just starting to take some role in operating and dealing with supply chains.

The cost referring to the operation cost for PGS movement, there is no charge for any service fee. We are initiating and promoting PGS organic movement, and working with very small holder farmers.  

Consolidated and translated by Aung Moe Hein

B.Agri.Sc (Q), Dip.Agri, Dip.ABS (Israel),

Dip.Agri (Japan),

Gaia PGS (Organic technical support Team)

Discussion on Gaia PGS standard

(2) Well decomposed locally available organic wastes and animal manures are used.

  • It’s not necessary to use the world “we decomposed”. If farmer use straw, it doesn’t have to be decomposed.
  • It’s very difficult to say when the manure is well decomposed. There is no way to check, and it’s very subjective when saying it is well decomposed, half decomposed, or not decomposed.
  • The recommendation is best to remove “Well decomposed” from the standard.

(3) Pest and disease problems are solved by the organic technique shared by GAIA PGS network which are fit to environmental sustainability. (GAIA PGS technical supporting team will assist and share knowledge and skill)

  • This means every time farmers want to treat pest and disease; they have to ask GAIA PGS network. This is a service, and we shouldn’t write the service in the standard. Because farmers must come to GAIA PGS network every time and it’s not practically possible for GAIA PGS network to do it.
  • The recommendation is best to remove this criterion from the standard.
  • Website Organic PGS: There are 3 languages, the information about the input for organic PGS, for example, pest control and organic fertilizer that can be used.
The input, the benefit, and how to use it.
Some non-organic/chemical that allow in the organic PGS.

(4) GMO seeds are prohibited. Local seeds conservation and growing are encouraged but open pollinated hybrid seeds are allowed in a case of local seed scarcity as exception.

  • The GMO soy bean and cotton are being research, and it could be very expensive at the moment.
  • Hybrid and OP are 2 different things. Hybrid is using particular parent seeds and cross over between male and female. And hybrid is not open pollinated in any case.
  • Open Pollinated, normally it means natural pollinated and refers to local seed production.
  • The recommendation is best to remove “Open Pollinated”

(5) Sewage (of human) is not using in vegetable farming. (Strongly prohibited because of transmission of pathogens).

  • The human manure is prohibited for vegetable crop, it can be used for fruit and rice.

(9) Producers have to assure of following the communal agreements of the network.

  • The network members must abide by the above standard.
  • The GAIA PGS network has the agreement within the group, not with the individual. There are individual agreement or group agreement, either way it’s fine. Some PGS group can have each individual contract/agreement.

(10) Assessments are to be done among producers within a group and among groups.

  • The inspection shouldn’t be specified in the standard.
  • The recommendation is best to write the inspection shall be done by the recognized inspector it cannot be by anyone, rather than putting to many details.

Processed Foods and animal husbandry, there are important areas

  1. The animal feed
    1. It’s crucial in organic standard for livestock to include organic feed. It doesn’t have to be 100% but at least some percentage of organic feed. If there is only mentioned natural feed and medicine, meaning any chicken in the village can be qualified as organic chicken.
    1. The international standard requires 80-100% of the feed must be organic, some case farmers must grow their own feed or buy it within the community (not buying feed from far away because of the environmental concern)
    1. The recommendation, 25% feed for animal must be from organic source.
  2. The vaccine and medical treatment
    1. It’s important to recognize that the animal must be vaccinated or have some medical treatment, otherwise it will die. It’s possible to say, for example, shouldn’t sell the product 6 months after vaccination.
  3. The number of animals
    1. There must be a control on maximum number of animals per square meter, and open access or be able to run out to the open air.
    1. In the same manner, there is a requirement for the fish

Packing and storage

  • It’s a good plan, but no need to mention it in the standard.

How inspectors are trained, Approval system

  • The inspector team is comprised of 4 people: 1 from Gaia Organization (NGO), 1 agriculturalist/technician (does his own research farm with CSR grant), 1 farmers’ facilitator (Metta’s staff- NGO), and 1 media (for documentation, information gathering and dissemination).  
  • Farm Assessment will be conducted by producers themselves, with their producer groups and also by the technical team.
  • Farmers inspect the farm themselves means the farmer inspect their own farm and request for the farm record. The recommendation, farmer inspect their farm doesn’t count.
  • The local group inspect the member; Gaia PGS is not yet working on a close monitoring and inspection, more on technical service and technical advice. The recommendation, PGS is focusing more on the guarantee system which mean the inspection. Therefore, the group needs to step up the guarantee system to become a PGS.

(If the group is focusing on technical support or extension, it’s a bit misreading to be called PGS. And the guarantee system doesn’t have to be inspected by technical team only, it can be inspected by farmer themselves, or even be self-declaration by farmer. This needs to be clarify and communicate with consumers.)

An example of farm inspection method by farmer

  • The most important person to do this method, it could be Gaia PGS or producer themselves. The person plays the role of facilitation and inspection at the same time. There is a training on “facilitator comes inspectors”.
  • The process is verifying and confirming the basic data of the farm, size of the farm, the crop, etc. The data can be presented on the certificate, if needed.
  • Base on this process and the report, then the group can work on the improvement. The improvement shouldn’t be done by checking the environmental conditions, because the test will not tell anything and it’s a waste of money.

Cost recovery, basically is how to sustain this exercise

  • There are many NGOs starting this exercise, but they stop doing it after the funding is finished. This is a waste of time; we shouldn’t do that.
  • It means we should design for a system which can be sustained without the funding.
  • Some examples of this exercise, when the inspector visits the farm the expenses of food and travelling are supported by the local group. The inspector is volunteers and the group will be benefited by claiming organic PGS, selling the products, and making some money. Therefore, the local group must cover this cost. In PGS group, normally farmers sell to the group. This is called collective sell. In this case, the group pay for the cost of PGS works.
  • The group should start implement this from the beginning, so the cost of PGS works will be built in the system, and vegetable cost that sell to consumer will include the PGS cost as well.
  • The group can also collect money from farmers, for example 200-300 baht/year, to pay for the PGS cost and other management cost. So, farmer may contribute to the group works, including PGS cost.
  • Another group that farmer has no money, farmers can agree to pay by the product, in kind not in cash.

Questions and Answers

  • Does the certify has a time frame for verification?
    • Normally, it can be 1 year for certificate. In practice it can be many more years, and the maximum is 4 years. But it’s not recommended because it’s a lot of works to give individual farmer certificate every year. It can be required at the market stage by giving information about the number of farmer that they are PGS approve, rather than giving certificate to individual farmer.
    • Before giving the certificate, the most important thing is the farm inspection at least 1 time/year. In the standard, it mentioned 2 times/year then you must do it twice a year before giving the certificate. If you cannot ensure 1 inspection of each farm a year then you shouldn’t give any certificate.
  • How different PGS in Thailand work together and support each other?
    • There are collaboration and completing. The markets own by someone else; he/she needs to be sure about the products. So, PGS groups need to build their reputation.
  • What is the government role for organic PGS in Thailand?
    • Normally, government is open for organic PGS, and sometimes it’s open too much. The government and market place are an external factor, we should focus on the internal condition.

The further steps

  • If the GAIA PGS is interested in , to have the Burmese Version, can contact:
  • Overall, the standard is quite good, just some missing information. The training for farmers that must be organized, technical support is much more important than the requirement.
  • The group needs to step up the guarantee system to become a PGS. A training for qualified/approved inspector: PGS Training. (How the inspectors are trained? To be a qualify person and to do the inspection, how many approved inspectors in GAIA PGS Network?) A training on “facilitator comes inspectors”.

Session #3, 15 November 2022

Critical issues identified by trader or market actor

A summary of the supply chain analysis

Producer groupsProduct3 critical-important problems
Alin EainFish Paste1.    Cannot invest for bulk buying containers and affected by the fluctuating cost of packaging (container prices increases constantly, sometimes the containers are out of stock)
2.    Advertising on Facebook Page is not very productive as much as we expected
3. Raw materials (Fish) become scarce and product price increases constantly
Shwe Myaygyi,
Taw Won oo, Teikgyi farmer group, Fatima farmer group.
Potato1.    Varieties, cannot get all seasons, quantity, cannot meet the consumer demand
2.    Do not have proper storage place/container for vegetables
3. Transportation to buyer, do not have proper truck/ container to send products in timely manner and or freshly. No contracted truck to work with/work on barbell agreement with truck driver on weekly basis. Sometimes the driver cancels the trip just in very short notice
Elephant farm Social EnterpriseFruits & vegetables1.    Quality check & packaging
2.    Transportation and delivery
3. Storage
Taw Win Oo
(Htee Gyaint Township)
Cooking Oil1.    We do not have proper storage space and system so we cannot bulk buy and keep product for a long time. The fluctuating prices and transportation cost, effects on sale and capital
2.    We cannot reach out to all or customers regularly, and cannot collect orders properly
3. Even we do marketing and sales promotion events and activities, we do not get new customers.
Ko Kyaw KyawRice1.    Packaging: we do not have quality packaging to attract consumers
2.    Very little order received from consumers
3. Even though we advertise on our page, not many orders increased

Discussion on the supply chain analysis

Fish Paste

  • It’s village or natural product, but it’s not an organic product, because the group has no way to prove it at the moment.
  • The fish past production process
    • Fish were caught by a net, and clean the fish
    • Mix it’s salted and sundry for 2 days
    • Mix with salt and press, and keep the fermentation for 4-5 months
  • The processing has done in the individual household or a centralize way.
  • To becomes Organic PGS, the group needs to apply and practice the standard.
    • The group should be able to verify where and how the fish were caught,
    • The condition of processing on adding material, pollution, contamination, etc.
  • Normally, when we do processing, we will do it when raw material cost is cheapest.
  • The container, using food grade plastic.

Potato (Alu)

  • Organic potato needs a cold climate, or high attitude (more than 1,000 meters above the sea level). The distant is around 700 kms, up in the mountain to Yangon.
  • There is a season for growing potato, meaning potato cannot be sold the whole year.
  • Within the season, there are 2 types of potato
    • The first one that harvest before the monsoon, which is the best quality and last longer
    • The second one that grow and harvest during the monsoon, which is easily to get rotten because of the moisture.
  • This is a logistic issue, the recommendations are:
    • It would be better to buy a big amount.
    • Organize a big truck to collect the product 1 time, and storing the product
    • The storage can be rented near the farm or the shop. It will be temporary for 1-2 months, and the place needs to be dry and dark.
    • Before invest for the storage, the group need to check the quality of the organic potato first. The key issue with potato is the fungus that spread in the air, and it can affect the potato overnight. Normally, farmers will spray fungicide every 3 to 4 days.

Fruit (Pomelo) and Vegetable (Morning Glory)

  • 2-3 Farmers will harvest on Thursday morning, and consolidate at one of the farmer houses, then the market actor will arrange the care to pick up the product around 8.00 am and travel to Yangon (around 40 miles distant). Fresh vegetable required a fresh harvest and prompt delivery. The longer time in the farm will reduce the freshness of the vegetable.
  • 3 Types of the morning glory
    • Chinese morning glory
    • Local morning glory which is grown on the water and
    • Another local morning glory which is grown in near water
  • Quality Check, the produce from far distant are not fresh, yellow leave, and black spot on the leave.
  • The recommendation
    • It is best to check the harvest time
    • Transportation process, protecting the produce from the wind and putting the produce on the standing post.
    • All softy leave vegetable, the market actors have to sell them fast.
  • All softy leave vegetable, the market

Cooking Oil

  • Peanut Oil
    • Peanut grow by a farmer and produce by mini pressing machine.
    • The land size is 50 acers, the produce will be 6.5 tons (800 kg/hectare)
    • 1 kg of peanut, 85% for seeds and 15% for shelve, and 2.5 kg of peanut seeds can make 1 liter of peanut oil.
    • The farmers can produce 2,200 liter/year, and the group order 400 liters from the producer. And the group buy according to the order.
  • The recommendation on logistic issue
    • Selling by order, the transportation will be high cost. Without shop and management, the group role is similar to the postman.
    • The best peanut can be sold directly, when the cost of peanut is low then make oil.
    • As a social enterprise, we try to support small farmers.

Main issues from supply chain analysis

  • The farm production issue
  • The logistic issue is the main issue of the network
  • The communication and marketing issue

Production, the general rules for the supply chain, we need to start with the supply of the raw material. We need to know where the materials come from, and do they were produced organically. So, the fish, potato, morning glory, peanut need to be checked, they need to be certified Organic PGS. The group should have a secure supply organic material. Without this the group cannot claim organic, and don’t’ have story to sell to the consumer.

The logistic has to be specific for each product. Therefore, the group needs to be precise about the product, and good in calculation the volume for the supply. It will become cheaper if the group can handle in the bulk/large volume, the bigger amount the better you can save the cost. Having good logistic management then the business will make profit.

Communication, the simple rule for communication is good contents and good pictures, to show the different from other products in the markets.

An example for supporting small scale farmers

The mission of SE is organizing small scale farmers to have a better market access.

Green Net Organic and Fair Trade

  • Buying from farmer group, sometime there is a large farm but the large farm cannot sell more than 20% of the total produce of the group.
  • There are checking the quota every year, not to exceed the quota.
  • There is also external audit/inspection.
  • The PGS for cotton project in Thailand, Green Net inspect farmer every year or 2 years.
  • There are Peer PGS System, asking another PGS to inspect our PGS.

The potential plan for further steps

  • The materials use for packaging and
  • Harvest and post-harvest management, transportation and storage planning.
  • Logistic management for perishability product.
  • Scaling up the Organic PGS for Trader/Market Actors, market actors can approach more producers and support small scale farmers.
  • The clarification/the terminology of natural, organic, chemical-free, etc
  • The information of small farmers, linking producers and consumers and promote SE.
  • The information and principle of fair trade

Session #4, 17 November 2022

Vegetable production constraints and critical issues identified by farmers

Elephant Farm Group

  • Production information
    • Growing Broccoli in winter season.
    • 4 full-time (family members), and 4 occasional for weeding and harvesting during the peak time.
    • Labor constrains is not an issue in Myanmar.
  • Water issues
    • The deep well is not good for farming, because of the resource limitation.
    • The surface well is better for farming, water level will go up and dawn.
    • Using electricity and diesel engine when the black out
    • Hand watering is good but time consuming for farmer. The simple water system with the tank, which can use in 1 acer area.
  • Seed issues
    • The farmer should do seedling in a nursery for broccoli, bitter guard, cucumber, etc. So, the farmer should do seedling for expensive and sensitive seed (The most expensive is broccoli).
    • Rather than produce a big amount every 3 months, organic farmers can plan for a regular production and marketing:
      • Broccoli, germinate 50 seeds every week.
      • Long bean, roselle, and egg plant, germinate 20 seeds of long been every 2 weeks.
      • Morning glory, 5 square meters (1×5 meters) twice a week.
  • The Bokashi
    • Material: chicken manure, cow manure, rice husk, rice brain, molas, EM, top soil, dry plant, and fish amino.
    • No EM and fish amino acid, but use the young pot and part of River Tamarind 2 kg. to reduce the cost.
    • The bokashi will not last longer than 1 month.
  • Animal manure
    • The manure needs to be composted for 2 times, by making moisture and fermenting process (heat up until the hand cannot stand for the heat) under the plastic sheet.
      • The manure will not kill the plant
      • The plant can get the food easily
      • The process will reduce the weed seeds in the cow manure
  • Flood issue
    • For a long period of flood, farmer can grow rice, taro, lotus stem, etc.
  • The notes/recommendations
    • Vegetable do not need a large land, but small productive land. The larger the farm is the productivity will be very low.
    • For vegetable analysis, need to exclude the perennial tree from the production.

Golden Ground Organic

  • Production information
    • Land and labor are not an issue.
  • Water issues
    • Use hand watering and this can be improved by using water irrigation system.
  • Nursery 
    • Tomato, seeding in the bag and then transplant it into the plot.
    • Material, use burned pig manure mix with rice husk and top soil, ratio 1:3.
  • The Bokashi
    • Shouldn’t add wood vinegar and ash in the Bokashi, because the strong acid and alkaline will kill the microbe.
    • The Bokashi 2 (adding, chicken manure, bone, and fish amino) has a very high nitrogen. Also, using 1,000 kg for 0.5 half acer is too much amount; that is good for leafy vegetable not for fruit because it’s too much nitrogen.
    • Reduce the material that farmers have to buy and replace it with local material which might be free of charge to save the cost.

Kyaw Khaing Win

  • Production information
    • Farmer grows mainly is rice, and later grow chickpea and onion.
  • The compost
    • The compost process needs air.
    • Good compost has good smell, look like the soil after the first rain.
  • Fish amino
    • The formular is fish and molas, ratio 1:1, and keep for 1 month.
    • Farmer can use another animal for the fish amino, for example golden snail. And use sugar-cane instead of molas. The proportion of snail and sugar-cane is 2 to 1. (The proportion for sugar cane juice is 1 to 1).
  • Mulching technique, using rice husk
    • The benefits are, to control the week from germination, to keep moisture in the soil, farmers do no need to water very often, and to give food for the soil, when the rice husk is decomposed.
    • Putting too much rice husk, it can affect to the plant, for example, the root can be rotten. When the husk decomposed it will trade nitrogen from the soil, which means less nitrogen for the plant, then the plant become yellow.
    • The amount can be 1 cm. thick. Farmers need to observe the farm and adjust the amount of the rice husk
    • Farmers can also use rice straw instead of the husk.

The potential plan for further steps

  • Energy consumption, finding the support to convert diesel engine to solar power for farming, to reduce carbon emission.
  • Farm management or Farm Design for resource and energy consumption.
  • Production planning for constant productions for markets, the collaboration between producer and market actors.
  • Organic compost technique for Organic PGS
  • Farmers can be a research and experiment on organic compost

The summary of the lessons learned of Gaia PGS Network

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